m6米乐-m6米乐官网 0677-210674696

论文摘要的要素、举例与句型

作者:m6米乐 时间:2021-07-28 00:30
本文摘要:内容提要1 摘要的基本要素2 包罗基本要素的摘要举例3 摘要中的基本句型1、基本要素摘要是论文的简介,用于在检索系统中供读者决议是否获取全文,用于潜在审稿人判断是否可以审稿,用于读者阅读论文时先对论文有大致相识,用于人们引用你事情时挑选要引用的内容或看法。为了到达这种目的,对于那些对摘要没有给出详细指南的期刊,摘要一般包罗五个基本要素,这五个基本要素划分是问题陈述、念头、方法、效果和结论。

m6米乐官网

内容提要1 摘要的基本要素2 包罗基本要素的摘要举例3 摘要中的基本句型1、基本要素摘要是论文的简介,用于在检索系统中供读者决议是否获取全文,用于潜在审稿人判断是否可以审稿,用于读者阅读论文时先对论文有大致相识,用于人们引用你事情时挑选要引用的内容或看法。为了到达这种目的,对于那些对摘要没有给出详细指南的期刊,摘要一般包罗五个基本要素,这五个基本要素划分是问题陈述、念头、方法、效果和结论。要 素 1 - 问题陈述(problem statement)陈述要解决的问题是什么,这个问题有什么职位或重要性。

对于受益面比力大的问题,先用通俗易懂的语言陈述所有科学家都懂的部门,再陈述同行科学家才懂的部门。对于只面向同行科学家的论文,如果论文的标题和摘要中指出的念头很显着地带出了是什么问题,那么可以忽略这个要素。

要 素 2 - 念头 (motivation or purpose)指出论文要解决的详细问题是什么,须要时指出目的,适当指出解决这个问题的重要性和难题。要 素 3 - 方法 (method)简述论文所接纳的研究方法。

对于读者所不熟悉的方法,应指出方法的特征和方法的泉源。要 素 4 - 效果 (result)出现论文获得的最重要/主要的效果。如果是定量效果,应量化到最后一级。如果是定性效果,应使用没有歧义的表述方式。

要 素 5 - 结论 (conclusion)声明效果对同偏向的问题有什么寄义、影响和价值。对于综合性期刊,还要求指出对其它或所有领域的问题有什么意义。

对于很是专业的期刊或论文,如果效果自己的意义对于潜在读者很明确,则不需要特别强调结论。2、包罗基本要素的摘要举例摘要按顺序一般泛起问题陈述、念头、方法、效果和结论五个要素。以下提供一个很是显着地包罗这五个要素的论文摘要。

先给出英文,再给出中文翻译。我们用蓝色标问题陈述、红色标念头、绿色标方法、紫色标效果、玄色标结论。

该摘要出自天体物理学杂志2019年关于庞大生命宜居带的论文。E W. Schwieterman , CT. Reinhard, SL. Olson , CE. Harman & TW. Lyons 2019 A Limited Habitable Zone for Complex Life, The Astrophysical Journal, 878:19 (9pp), pp:1-9原文摘要 The habitable zone (HZ) is commonly defined as the range of distances from a host star within which liquid water, a key requirement for life, may exist on a planet’s surface. Substantially more CO2 than present in Earth’s modern atmosphere is required to maintain clement temperatures for most of the HZ, with several bars required at the outer edge. However, most complex aerobic life on Earth is limited by CO2 concentrations of just fractions of a bar. At the same time, most exoplanets in the traditional HZ reside in proximity to M dwarfs, which are more numerous than Sun-like G dwarfs but are predicted to promote greater abundances of gases that can be toxic in the atmospheres of orbiting planets, such as carbon monoxide (CO). Here we show that the HZ for complex aerobic life is likely limited relative to that for microbial life. We use a 1D radiative-convective climate and photochemical models to circumscribe a Habitable Zone for Complex Life (HZCL) based on known toxicity limits for a range of organisms as a proof of concept.We find that for CO2 tolerances of 0.01, 0.1, and 1 bar, the HZCL is only 21%, 32%, and 50% as wide as the conventional HZ for a Sun-like star, and that CO concentrations may limit some complex life throughout the entire HZ of the coolest M dwarfs. These results cast new light on the likely distribution of complex life in the universe and have important ramifications for the search for exoplanet biosignatures and technosignatures.中文翻译 可居住区(HZ)通常被界说为作为生命的一个关键要素的液态水可以存在于行星外貌的离宿主恒星的距离规模。对于大多数可居住区,为了维持温和的温度,要求二氧化碳比地球现代大气中的二氧化碳多得多, 且在外边缘有几个巴的气压。

然而,地球上最庞大的有氧生命受几分之一巴二氧化碳浓度的限制。与此同时,位于传统宜居带的大多数系外行星都位于M矮星四周,这种矮星比类太阳的G矮星数量更多,但据预测这会使在轨行星大气中更富有一氧化碳等有毒气体。在这里,我们指明,相对于微生物生命,适应于庞大有氧生命的宜居带(数目)可能受限。我们使用1D辐射对流气候和光化学模型,凭据一系列生物的已知毒性极限,划定庞大生命可居住区,以作为(我们提出的)观点的证明。

我们发现,对于气压为0.01、0.1和1巴的二氧化碳容差,庞大生命宜居带的宽度仅为类太阳恒星通例宜居带的21%、32%和50%,而且CO2浓度可能会限制最冷的M矮星整个宜居带的某些庞大生命。这些效果给宇宙中(是否)漫衍有庞大生命带来新的看法,且对寻找外行星生物特征和技术特征有重要衍生意义。3、常见句型可以用一些特有的句型将两个或多个要素归纳综合在一个句子中,例如“通过使用档案分析和观察分析相联合的方法,我们发现学生修业年限与收支图书馆的频率的相关性系数高达0.5,这一结论可用于督促学生将更多时间花在图书馆”就将方法、效果和结论精密地联合在一句话中。

一般情况下,则需要对五个要素划分思量。每个要素均有人们经常使用的句型,这里仅仅枚举其中的一部门供参考。

思量到大多数读者有英文写作需求,且从英文可以自行翻译成中文,因此这里给出的句型均为英语。A.问题陈述Habitable zone is defined as …, and this problem is important for …. Though much work has been done concerning …of habitable zone, but the related questions about … are little addressed (or not considered, or not thoroughly considered). Understanding these questions is of primary importance (or significant ) in …The problem of habitable zone for ... is a hotly studied topic due to the widespread recongnization of the importance of this problem in cosmology. However, the ... is little addressed (or not considered) due to the lack of ....The problem is an important component in ... and plays a key role in ....... is the leading cause of ... in ....... are among the most widely used methods and…... is a well-known phenomenon characterized by…The issue of ... has received considerable attentions because of its importance in ....... is an increasingly important issue in …B.念头Here we show (or demonstrtae) that the habitable zone (for complex life) is limited.This study aims to elucidate …..The main objective/goal/purpose of the paper/article is …..Here we study (or address or consider) the limitation of habitable zone. In this paper we consider the limitation of the habitable zone. The limitation of the habitable zone is considered in this paper. This paper is concerned with the limitation of the habitable zone.The paper/article discusses (or deals with, analyses, considers, explains, describes, establishes, introduces, aims on, offer a solution) … concerning habitable zone.This paper develops (presents, provides, studies, contains, concentrates on) ….. This paper gives (or aims to give ) a comprehensive account of …..This paper presents a novel method of …..C.方法We use the method of … to …. and this method has the properties of …. The method of … is used to …. Systematic experiments (or numerical simulation or case studies or surveys or theoretical analyses ) are performed with ….. To solve the problem of … concerning habitable zone, a method based on … is proposed here and this method is capable of …. We build a method to … and this method is updated from the method of … through introducing … to increase the accurary (or robustness or parameter range). D.效果We find that ….One of the important results is that ..., another one is that .... The results are that …. We obtain the results of or that …. It is demonstrated that ..... According to this study, ….. Interestingly, …. was shown to have important impact on habitable zone for complex life. Surprisingly, …. was found to have import impact on ….. The most striking observation from the data was…The most striking finding of this study was…The ... (such as complex life) are here found to be dependent on …. E.结论These results cast new light on (or have important ramifications for ) ….. The present study brings a gap between …..The present study establishes a brige between …..This study closes up a long debate about …..The conclusion of this study is that ….. The result obtained by this study can be used to (or applied to)This study opens up a new field (or issue) in ….This study not only solves the challenging problem of ... but also offers a method that can be used to solve other problems such as ….。


本文关键词:论,文摘,要的,要素,、,举例,与,句型,内容提要,m6米乐

本文来源:m6米乐-www.nnmcjx.com